Embryonic Expression of Pre-Initiation DNA Replication Factors in Xenopus laevis

Brian Walter, Jonathan J. Henry

Research output: Journal ArticleArticlepeer-review


We examined the expression of various DNA replication factors, including: cdc45, the factors of the GINS heterotetramer (Sld5, Psf1, Psf2, Psf3), and PCNA, in Xenopus laevis during embryonic development via whole mount in situ hybridization. For the most part, these factors were expressed in similar patterns, with some subtle variations, throughout development within the anterior CNS, pharyngeal arches, and various placodes. More significant variations were also observed, including expression of only Psf1 and Psf2 in the pronephros and unique Psf2 expression in the somitic mesoderm. Overall, these results suggest that common regulatory mechanisms are involved in the transcriptional deployment of these factors. Significantly, expression of these factors does not directly coincide with elevated patterns of DNA replication, suggesting that different replication factors are utilized in different developmental regions.
Original languageAmerican English
JournalGene Expression Patterns
StatePublished - Nov 2004


  • Xenopus
  • In situ hybridization
  • cdc45
  • GINS
  • Sld5
  • Psf1
  • Psf2
  • Psf3
  • PCNA
  • Development
  • Transdifferentiation
  • Lens


  • Biology
  • Cell and Developmental Biology
  • Molecular Biology

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